Private, Voluntary Industry-led Initiatives
Four companies (IBM, Intel, Matsushita, and Toshiba) (the “4C” companies) have developed a number of technologies for the protection of digitized copyrighted works. The 4C’s Protection for Pre-recorded Media (“CPPM”) and Content Protection for Recorded Media (“CPRM”) protect digitized copyrighted works distributed or stored on portable storage media. CPPM, which uses encryption and watermark detection to protect content in pre-recorded digital media, has been adapted for works distributed in the DVD audio format.
CPRM protects audiovisual, literary and other copyrighted works stored on a variety of optical and flash memory-based storage media, including DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, SD Memory Card and Secure CompactFlash. CPRM provides for encryption of “copy once” content and includes the obligations to recognize and respond to watermarks and copy control instructions in content entering unprotected inputs. Both CPPM and CPRM include robust encryption of copyrighted material and implicit authentication of recording and rendering products via storage media-based broadcast encryption. The cryptographic cipher used for both CPPM and CPRM (the “C2” cipher) is licensed separately by the 4C Entity for certain uses, such as encrypting content stored on a fixed hard drive for “time shifting” purposes.
The 4C companies have proposed a framework for the integration of otherwise independent content protection technologies – the Content Protection System Architecture (CPSA). CPSA combines encryption, authentication and watermarking technologies with licensing agreements. Under the CPSA model, content is encrypted and transmitted digitally only via protected outputs and only to devices that are bound to provide a minimum level of persistent protection and, in some cases, to respond to usage rules conveyed by associated watermarks. CPSA includes Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP) technology developed by the 5C companies (discussed below). More information on the 4C companies is available at: http://www.4centity.com.
The 5C companies (Intel, Hitachi, Matsushita, Sony, and Toshiba) work together to develop technologies to protect copyrighted works in digital format. The 5C companies designed Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP) technology to protect audio and audiovisual content from unauthorized copying, interception and tampering within a localized network. DTCP technology is used to protect compressed content from unauthorized access as it travels over digital buses. By way of illustration, DTCP technology may be used to protect the “link” between a set-top box receiver and a DVD recorder or a digital television monitor. DTCP technology is used to ensure that DVD content is sent via digital outputs only to devices that will recognize and follow any associated copy control instructions. The Digital Transmission Licensing Administrator (DTLA) licenses DTCP technology. More information on DTLA at http://www.dtcp.com/ and on DTCP technology at http://www.dtcp.com/dtcp.aspx.
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC)
The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) is the international, nonprofit organization that develops voluntary technical standards for high definition television. ATSC has developed and adopted a specification for an ATSC Redistribution Control Descriptor (or “Broadcast Flag”), which may be embedded into digital broadcast television content to guard against unauthorized redistribution. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) currently is conducting a rule making (MB Docket No. 02-230) regarding the need for a regulatory regime within the limited sphere of digital broadcast television and on whether the FCC should adopt rules or create some other mechanism to resolve any outstanding compliance, robustness and enforcement issues related to the Broadcast Flag. More information on ATSC is available at: http://www.atsc.org.
CableLabs is a nonprofit research and development consortium that is dedicated to pursuing new cable telecommunications technologies and to helping its cable operator members integrate those technical advances into their business objectives. The goal of Cable Labs’ OpenCable Initiative is to establish hardware and software specifications to create a common platform for the deployment of advanced interactive cable services. More information on CableLabs is available at: www.cablelabs.org.
Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
The Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) is a non-profit organization that undertakes, fosters and promotes research on the strategic development of network-based information technologies. CNRI’s Handle System is a distributed computer system that stores names, or handles, of digital items and which can quickly resolve those names into the information necessary to locate and access the items. The Handle System was designed by CNRI as a general purpose global system for the reliable management of information on networks such as the Internet over long periods of time and is currently in use in a number of prototype projects. More information on CNRI is available at: http://www.cnri.reston.va.us.
Copy Protection Technical Working Group (CPTWG)
The Copy Protection Technical Working Group (CPTWG) is an informal forum for content creators and owners, consumer electronics and computer companies, and interested consumers and consumer advocates to discuss technical issues related to content protection. CPTWG seeks consensus on technological solutions for various content protection challenges, including protecting in the DVD home video market from casual piracy. The CPTWG began by launching an encryption approach called Content Scrambling System (CSS) in 1997.
In November 2001, the CPTWG established the Broadcast Discussion Group (BPDG) to address the protection of digital broadcast television signals against unauthorized redistribution. More than 70 representatives of the motion picture, consumer electronics, computer and information technology, cable and broadcast industries, as well as individuals and representatives of consumer and civil liberties groups, participated in that process. In June 2002, the BPDG completed a technical evaluation of the Broadcast Flag technology, which provides a means of preventing unauthorized redistribution of digital broadcast television content outside the personal digital network environment. As noted above, the FCC currently is conducting a rule making with respect to a number of technical and enforcement issues related to the Broadcast Flag. More information on CPTWG is available at: http://www.cptwg.org.
Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Group
The Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Group is a private, voluntary industry group that develops technical specifications for the delivery of digital television. The consortium is composed of over 300 broadcasters, manufacturers, network operators, software developers, and regulatory bodies. Although the DVB’s principal focus is on Europe, participants from over 40 countries are working on global standards for the secure delivery of digital television. Proposals for specifications are developed through collaboration of DVB Members in numerous Working Groups. Although DVB does not have standard-setting authority, its specifications are referred to international standard setting organizations such as the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) (discussed below) for possible adoption as a global standard. Since 1991, DVB has provided a forum for broadcasters, consumer electronics manufacturers and media interest groups interested in the development of digital television in Europe. By 1997, many DVB standards were adopted worldwide. DVB has been active in the following technical and commercial areas: Multimedia Home Platform (MHP), Copy Protection (CP), Personal Video Recorders (PVR), Broadband Satellite Systems (BSS), Wireless Home Networks (WHN), Storage Media Interoperability (SMI), and Return Channels (RC). DVB is currently working on technical specifications for content control in the consumer environment. More information on the DVB Group is available at: http://www.dvb.org.
DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA)
The DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) is a non-profit corporation responsible for licensing and enforcing the Content Scrambling System (CSS) (an encryption scheme that protects the contents of DVDs) to manufacturers of DVD hardware, discs and related products. The CSS has been adopted by the content and DVD technology community and is on many prerecorded DVD discs released today. DVD CCA is responsible for selecting and licensing technology that will carry Content Control Information (CCI). More recently, the DVD CCA is focusing attention on the selection of an appropriate watermark technology to carry CCI for implementation in conjunction with CSS licensed DVD players to prevent unauthorized recording and playback of DVD content where the CSS encryption has been bypassed. More information on DVD CAA is available at: www.dvdcca.org
The DVD Forum is an international association of hardware manufacturers, software firms and other users of Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs). The DVD Forum was formed for the purpose of exchanging and disseminating ideas and information about the DVD format. The DVD Forum defines technical for prerecorded and some recordable formats (such as DVD-R, DVD-RW, and RAM). Its Working Group 9 (WG 9) addresses copyright protection. The DVD Forum also works to promote broad acceptance of DVD products on a worldwide basis, across entertainment, consumer electronics and information technology industries.
Membership is open to any corporation or organization that is engaged in activities related to DVD research, and/or manufacturing, or any software or other users of DVD products that are interested in developing and improving the DVD format. However, DVD Forum Members are not required to support the DVD Format to the exclusion of other formats. Founded in 1995 by ten companies, the DVD Forum today includes more than 230 member companies. The ten founding companies are: Hitachi, Ltd; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.; Pioneer Electronic Corporation; Royal Phillips Electronics N.V.; Sony Corporation; Thomson Multimedia; Time Warner Inc.; Toshiba Corporation; and Victor Company of Japan, Ltd. More information on the DVD Forum is available at: http://www.dvdforum.org.
Internet Streaming Media Alliance (ISMA)
The Internet Streaming Media Alliance (ISMA) is a non-profit corporation formed to provide a forum for the creation of specification(s) that define an interoperable implementation for streaming rich media (video, audio and associated data) over the Internet. ISMA is an alliance that is comprised of companies that deliver solutions for the complete value chain of authoring, encoding, capturing, managing, distributing, streaming and consuming media. ISMA builds upon existing standards to endorse an implementation specification for delivering streaming rich media over the Internet. More information on ISMA is available at: http://www.isma.tv.
Object Management Group (OMG)
The Object Management Group (OMG) is an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and maintains computer industry specifications for interoperable enterprise applications. The OMG was formed to create a component-based software marketplace by hastening the introduction of standardized object software. OMG advocates an object-oriented system because of its capacity to expand in functionality by extending existing components and adding new objects to the system. OMG's charter includes the establishment of industry guidelines and detailed object management specifications to provide a common framework for application development. Founded in 1989 by eleven companies, the consortium now includes approximately 800 members. More information on OMG is available at: http://www.omg.org.
International Digital Publishing Forum
The International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF), formerly the Open eBook Forum, is a trade and standards organization that develops and promotes electronic publishing. Over 85 companies and other organizations are members of IDPF, including publishers, authors, hardware and software companies, and stakeholder organizations such as the Association of American Publishers (AAP) (discussed below), the Library of Congress, and the American Foundation for the Blind. IDPF members pursue a common goal of establishing specifications and standards for electronic publishing. The IDPF conducts its standards and trade activities through the operation of Working Groups and Special Interest Groups.
The Publication Structure Working Group maintains and advances the Open eBook Publication Structure (OEBPS), an open non-proprietary, specification for the content, structure and presentation of electronic books. The Metadata & Identifiers Working Group is responsible for creating, and endorsing and adapting a framework for metadata and identifier standards. The Systems Working Group is responsible for ensuring that all IDPF standards and products fit into a unified solution for electronic publishing. The Rights and Rules Working Group is responsible for standardizing the terms used to describe DRM product features to consumers and for developing a common, computer-readable language for specifying rights and other information. Special interest working groups address the needs of businesses, libraries, and persons with disabilities. More information on the International Digital Publishing Forum is available at http://idpf.org/.
Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Digital Rights Management
The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is a consortium of nearly 200 companies representing the world’s leading mobile operators, device and network suppliers, information technology companies and content providers. OMA serves as a center for mobile standardization work, assisting in the creation of interoperable services across countries, operators, and mobile terminals that will meet the needs of the user. The mission of OMA is to expand the market for the entire mobile industry by removing barriers to interoperability, supporting a seamless and easy to use mobile experience for users and a market environment that encourages competition through innovation and differentiation. For example, OMA seeks to advance DRM technologies that would enable a customer to download a game to a mobile for a specified period, with the option available to acquire refreshed rights after the original rights have expired. More information on OMA is available at: http://www.openmobilealliance.org.
Protecting Accumulated Intellectual Data for Accounting in Real-Time (PAIDFAIR)
The PAIDFAIR project, which is aimed at setting a worldwide standard for payment for protected content or software use, is an initiative led by six European companies. The objectives of the project include developing demonstration systems in fields of secure electronic software distribution and Pay-Per-Use, distribution of music content, e-payment and authentication integration with Smart Card, IP Distribution through broadcast/multicast and satellite communication, biometrical authentication and secure downloads for open Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) set-top-box. The PAIDFAIR trial intends to adapt and introduce the new encryption technology CodeMeter. More information on PAIDFAIR is available at: http://www.paidfair.com/us/index.php.
The SmartRight Association is an industry consortium composed of companies from the consumer electronics, conditional access, integrated circuit and smart card industries. The aim of SmartRight is to develop a worldwide framework for copy protection within a digital home network. The SmartRight system will work in combination with conditional access systems or DRM systems, to provide end-to-end protection of digital content from the content provider to the consumer's presentation device. The system is being designed to accept content from any kind of source, including free-to-air and pre-recorded content. SmartRight is responsible, among other things, for developing and maintaining the SmartRight specification. More information on SmartRight is available at: http://www.smartright.org.
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE)
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) is the leading technical society for the motion picture industry. Founded in 1916 to advance theory and development in the motion imaging field, SMPTE today publishes ANSI-approved standards, recommended practices, and engineering guidelines. Through its Metadata and Wrapper Technology Committee (W25) and Digital Cinema Content Security Committee (DC28), SMPTE is refining specifications for the digital cinema content security environment. More information on SMPTE is available at: http://www.smpte.org.
Trusted Computing Platform Alliance (TCPA)
The Trusted Computing Platform Alliance (TCPA) is an industry working group of more than 170 members focused on enhancing trust and security on computer platforms. The steering committee consists of Compaq, HP, IBM, Intel, and Microsoft. The TCPA seeks to develop an industry standard specification to address trustworthiness of computing platforms and to improve the authenticity, integrity, and privacy of Internet-based communications and commerce. TCPA also promotes the adoption of the TCPA Specification. More information on TCPA is available at: http://www.trustedcomputing.org.
The TV-Anytime Forum is an international association of organizations that develops specifications to enable audio-visual and other services based on mass-market, high volume digital storage in consumer platforms (commonly called “local storage”). The Forum defines specifications that will enable applications to exploit local storage independent of the means of content delivery to consumer electronics equipment. Specifications are designed for interoperable and integrated systems – from content creators/providers, through service providers, to consumers. TV-Anytime Forum is developing a standard for the secure and flexible expression and enforcement of rights holders' usage conditions for media distributed to personal digital recorders. Formed in 1999, the TV-Anytime Forum’s membership reflects a wide variety of industries, including traditional broadcasters, Internet broadcasters, content owners, service providers, telecommunications companies, consumer electronics manufacturers, information technology companies, component manufacturers and software vendors. More information on the TV-Anytime Forum is available at: http://www.tv-anytime.org.
The VWM Group is a consortium that includes several leading consumer electronics and information technology companies, including Hitachi, NEC, Pioneer, Sony, Digimarc, Macrovision, and Philips. The proposed anti-piracy solution by the VWM group is being considered by various industry standards organizations, but has not yet been adopted.