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Table of Contents Spring 2022 VOLUME 45.3  Afghanistan  

Article One:

Disappointment and  Indifference: Pakistan and  the Biden Presidency
Robert M. Hathaway


Article Two:

Failure in Afghanistan: How It Happened and What It Means
General (Retired) Anthony C. Zinni.

Dr.Mie Aug, and Major Sean F. X. Barrett


Article Three:

Afghanistan Nation-Building and Missed Critical Element of Unifying Ideology
Sayed Hassan Akhlaq


Article Four:

Ethnicity and Politics in Afghanistan: An Uncertain Balance
Rasul Bakhsh Rais


Book Review:

Cynthia J. Becker, Blackness in Morocco: Gnawa Identity through Music and Visual Culture, Minneapolis, reviewed by Professor Norman Cigar

Dr. Robert M. Hathaway is Asia Program director emeritus and Global Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C.  He served for nearly 16 years as director of the Wilson Center’s Asia Program and, before that, for 12 years on the professional staff of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives.  He holds a Ph.D. in American Diplomatic History from the University of North Carolina.  Among his books is The Leverage Paradox: Pakistan and the United States (2017). Stevens Initiative Fellow at the American University of Technology in Beirut, Lebanon and as a Fulbright Specialist Scholar a Sumaya University for Technology in Amman Jordan. As an educator, he brings the theoretical foundation of a doctorate in Educational Leadership, Administration & Policy from Fordham University, a research agenda, and consulting practice centered on examining the complexity of leadership, governance and strategy across multiple cultural perspectives and organizational environments, and the applied knowledge gained from working and teaching on four continents throughout his professional career, to his students. In his consulting practice, he advises international institutions on leadership development, e-learning, and internationalization strategies.Richard Savior, Ed.D., Associate Professor of Business, Management & Economics, State University of New York

General Anthony Zinni (Ret.) has participated in presidential diplomatic missions to Somalia, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, and State Department missions involving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and conflicts in Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Middle East. His publications and monographs include Before the First Shots Are Fired, How America Can Win Or Lose Off The Battlefield with Tony Koltz (2014); Leading the Charge: Leadership Lessons from the Battlefield to the Boardroom, with Tony Koltz (2009); The Battle for Peace: A Frontline Vision of America's Power and Purpose, with Tony Koltz with a forward by Tom Clancy (2006), and Battle Ready (2004) with Tom Clancy and Tony Koltz (2004).  

Dr. Mie Augier is Professor in the Department of Defense Management, and Defense Analysis.  Department, at NPS (Naval Postgraduate School). Her publications, interests, research and teaching are in the areas of strategy, organizations, leadership, the influence of cultures on dision making, and how to educate strategic and critical thinkers and learning leaders.

Major Sean F. X. Barrett, PhD is a U.S. Marine Corps intelligence officer currently serving as the Operations Officer for 1st Radio Battalion. He has previously deployed in support of Operations IRAQI FREEDOM, ENDURING FREEDOM, ENDURING FREEDOM-PHILIPPINES, and INHERENT RESOLVE.

Dr. Sayed Hassan Akhlaq is an adjunct professor of Philosophy at both Marymount University, VA and Coppin State University, MD. He is a prolific writer and speaker on a wide range of topics including dialogue among civilizations, comparative philosophy, inter-religious studies, Sufism, the Middle East, and Political Islam. He has published six books, in Farsi in Iran and Afghanistan, and co-edited with John P. Hogan a 794 pages-volume The Secular and The Sacred, Complementary and/or Conflictual (Washington , DC: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy, 2017).

The author acknowledges the editing by Dr. Jonathan Zartman, coauthor of a Persian version of this argument previously published (Sayed Hassan Akhlaq and Jonathan Zartman, “Istifada az Usul-e Bashardustana baray-e Millat-sazi dar Afghanistan” [Applying Humanitarian Principles for Nation-Building in Afghanistan] in Paideia, A Quarterly Journal of Religious, Philosophical, and Cultural Studies, Special Issue: Nation-Building 3, No. 11 & 12 (Kabul: Andisha Foundation, 2019) 247-288.

Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais is Professor of Political Science in the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, LUMS, Lahore since 2002. He took off from LUMS and served at the Institute of Strategic Studies, Islamabad from August 2013 to December 2014. Dr. Rais has Ph.D. in Political Science from University of California. Before joining LUMS, he remained associated with the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad for nearly 22 years as Professor/Director, Area Study Centre and prior to that as Associate Professor in the Department of International Relations. He was Quaid-i-Azam Distinguished Professor of Pakistan Studies at Columbia University, New York from 1991 to 1994.  He took Fulbright fellowship at Wake Forest University, 1997-98, Social Science Research Fellowship at Harvard, 1989-90, Rockefeller Foundation fellowship in International Relations at the University of California, 1985-85.  He is author of Recovering the Frontier State: War, Ethnicity and State in Afghanistan, War Without Winners: Afghanistan’s Uncertain Transition after the Cold War, and Indian Ocean and the Superpowers: Economic, Political and Strategic Perspectives; editor of State, Society and Democratic Change in Pakistan; and co-editor of Pakistan 1995.Halil Akbas, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology, Sociology, and Criminology at Troy University in Alabama. He teaches graduate and undergraduate level courses, including research methods, law enforcement, homeland security, and Transnational Organized Crime. His main research interest focuses on police strategies, racial disparity, immigration, and fear of crime.


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