NORMAN CIGAR retired from the U.S. Marine Corps University, where he had taught military theory, strategy & policy, operational case studies, low-intensity conflict, seapower, nuclear strategy, and Middle East studies at the Command and Staff College and the School of Advanced Warfighting. In an earlier assignment in the Pentagon, he was responsible for the Middle East in the Office of the Army’s Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence. His writings include Saudi Arabia and Nuclear Weapons: How Do Countries Think about the Bomb? Dr. Cigar holds a DPhil from Oxford (St Antony’s College).
Bachar Bakour is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). He holds a BA in Sharī‘a and a BA in Arabic from al-Azhar University and an MA in Islamic Studies from Loughborough University. His PhD in Islamic Thought and Civilization is from the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization, IIUM. Among his books are Al-Buti and The Syrian Revolution; Islam and the West between the Myth of Confrontation and the Reality of Cooperation; A Dictionary of Islamic Terms (A-E); and The Prophet Muhammad: The Perfect Example. His research interests include the dialogue of Civilization, Islam-West relations, and Islam and politics.
Dr, Bakour is affiliated to a second institute that belongs to IIUM.
Michael Sharnoff is Associate Professor at the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies at the National Defense University in Washington, D.C. He publishes frequently on the Middle East and his articles have appeared in popular domestic and international media outlets. He holds a Ph.D. in Middle East Studies from King’s College, London, and is the author of Nasser’s Peace: Egypt’s Response to the 1967 War with Israel (Routledge, 2017).
Efrat Aviv is a senior lecturer in the Department of General History at Israel's Bar-Ilan University. Her postdoctoral research was conducted at the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies (BESA where she is currently a research fellow). She was a fellow at the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism from 2012 to 2015. She is an expert in Turkish religious movements, but she also writes about Israeli-Turkish relations, Antisemitism in Turkey, and Ottoman-Turkish Jewry. Her publications include Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism in Turkey: From Ottoman Rule to the AKP (New York and Oxford: Routledge, 2017); "Turkish–Israeli Relations in the 1960s: Trade, Trade Unions, Agriculture, and the Arab–Israeli War" (Israel Affairs, 2022 forthcoming), and many others.
Turkey’s State Crisis: Institutions, Reform, and Conflict by Bülent Ara
Reviewed by Michael B. Bishku