Citing Sources

This section explains how to avoid plagiarism and correctly prepare citations for the articles, books, and other works you used as part of your research and writing.

Whenever you quote or base your ideas on another person's work, you must document the source you used. Even when you do not quote directly from another work, if reading that source contributed to the ideas presented in your paper, you must give the authors proper credit.

Citations allow readers to locate and further explore the sources you consulted, show the depth and scope of your research, and give credit to authors for their ideas. Citations provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work by demonstrating that you have sought out and considered a variety of resources. In written academic work, citing sources is standard practice and shows that you are responding to this person and adding something of your own. Think of documenting your sources as providing a trail for your reader to follow to see the research you performed and discover what led you to your own conclusions or contributions.

Here is a brief pamphlet with tips on how to identify and avoid plagiarism prepared by Kristyna Carroll, Research Support Librarian at Falvey Library:

Two short, entertaining, and informational videos about plagiarism:

Plagiarism! A story of failure, grief and repentence

Avoiding Plagiarism: The Real World

Citations within your text link specific passages to the sources you consulted or quoted. This can be done through in-text parenthetic notes, footnotes, or endnotes. In addition, a bibliography or list of works cited is almost always placed at the end of your paper. 

The citation system and format you use will be determined by the citation style you choose:

American Sociological Association (ASA) Style

* ASA Quick Style Guide.pdf
(from the American Sociological Association)
* ASA Style Citations.pdf
(from Coates Library, Trinity University)

American Psychological Association (APA) Style

APA Documentation Guide (Gustavus Adolphus College)

APA Guidelines (Online Writing Lab at Purdue University)

Tutorial from the APA 

How to cite audiovisual, electronic, and other sources in APA style (Trinity College)

Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Manual of Style (Online Writing Lab at Purdue University)

How to cite audiovisual, electronic, and other sources in Chicago style (Trinity College)

Son of a Citation Machine
Citation machine helps students and professional researchers to properly credit the information that they use. Its primary goal is to make it so easy for student researchers to cite their information sources.

RefWorks will help you easily gather, manage, and store bibliographic citations for all types of information, as well as generate footnotes and bibliographies. Check out the Refworks Tutorial.

Code of Academic Integrity

By following these guidelines, you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious violation of Villanova's Code of Academic Integrity.