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Chicago Style Manual Guide

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be Times New Roman.
  • Font size should be 12 pt.
  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, with the following exceptions:
    •      Block quotations, table titles, and figure captions     should be single-spaced.
      •   A prose quotation of five or more lines should be blocked.
      •   A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks. 
      •  An extra line space should immediately precede and follow a blocked quotation.
      •  Blocked quotations should be indented .5” as a whole 
  • Notes and bibliographies should be singled-spaced internally; however, leave an extra line space between note and bibliographic entries.

  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
  • First-order headings are bolded and flush left.
    •  Put an extra line space before headings, and avoid ending them with periods.
    • Second-order headings are bolded and centered with no extra space between sections.

Major Paper Sections

Main Body

  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized. The first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name.
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
      • Lowercase terms used to describe periods, for example, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
  • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation is singled-spaced and takes no quotation marks, but you should leave an extra line space immediately before and after. Indent the entire quotation .5” (the same as you would the start of a new paragraph).


  • Label the first page of your back matter, and your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography.”
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” and your first entry.
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
  • Cite according to the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • List entries in alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry.
  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries.
    • For two to three authors, write out all names.
    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
    • Write out publishers’ names in full.
    • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.  
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
    • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
    • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).


  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
  • In the text, note numbers are superscripted.
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation.
    • In the notes themselves, note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period.
    • The first line of a footnote is indented .5” from the left margin.
    • Subsequent lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left.
    • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.

Tables and Figures

  • Position tables and figures after the paragraph in which they’re described.
  • Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “source line” at the bottom of the table or figure.
    • Source lines are introduced by the word Source(s), followed by a colon, and ended with a period.
    • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, minus the parentheses, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography page.
    • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., data adapted from; map by . . .).
    • Every table should have a number and a (short and descriptive) title flush left on the line above the table.
    • Every figure should have a number and a caption flush left on the line below the figure.
    • Number tables and figures separately in the order you mention them in the text.
      • In the text, identify tables and figures by number (“in Figure 3”) rather than by location (“below”).

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