The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Hazard materials Communication Standard requires manufacturers or distributors of hazardous s to assess the physical and health hazards of the chemical or product. This information must be included in the Safety Data Sheet (SDS), which must be provided to the purchaser of the product with at least the initial shipment of the chemical used in the workplace. SDS’s must be obtained and maintained for every chemical used in the workplace. The Laboratory Standard requires laboratories to keep Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) that are received from the manufacturer. The SDSs must be accessible to all personnel during their work hours.
This section gives the name and address of the manufacturer and an emergency phone number where questions about toxicity and chemical hazards can be directed.
Hazardous Ingredients of Mixtures
This section describes the percent composition of the substance, listing chemicals present in the mixture. If it was tested as a mixture, lists chemicals which contribute to its hazardous nature. Otherwise, list ingredients making up more then 1% and all carcinogens.
The OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL), and/or the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) will also be listed, if appropriate.
The OSHA PEL is the regulated standard while the others are recommended limits. The PEL is usually expressed in parts per million parts of air (ppm) or milligrams of dust or vapor per cubic meter of air (mg/m3). It is usually a time weighted average (TWA) - concentration averaged over an eight-hour day. Sometimes, a STEL or short term exposure limit may be listed. The STEL is a 15 minute TWA that should not be exceeded. A ceiling limit (c) is a concentration which may not be exceeded at any time. A skin notation means that skin exposure in significant to contributing to the overall exposure.
This section outlines the physical properties of the material. The information may be used to determine conditions for exposure. For example, one can determine whether or not a chemical will form a vapor (vapor pressure), whether this vapor will rise or fall (vapor density), and what the vapor should smell like (appearance and odor). This could help determines whether to use a fume hood or where to place ventilators.
The following information is usually included:
Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
This section included information regarding the flammability of the material and information for fighting fires involving the material.
Health Hazard Data
This section defines the medical signs and symptoms that may be encountered with normal exposure or overexposure to this material or its components. Information on the toxicity of the substance may also be presented. Results of animal studies are most often given. i.e. LD50 (mouse) =250 mg/kg. Usually expressed in weight of chemical per kg of body weight. LD50 or lethal dose 50 is the dose of a substance which will cause the death of half the experimental animals. LC50 is the concentration of the substance in air which will cause the death of half the experimental animals. Health hazard information may also distinguish the effects of acute (short term) and chronic (long-term) exposure.
Emergency and First Aid Procedures
Based on the toxicity of the product, degree of exposure and route of contact (eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion, and injection), emergency and first aid procedures are recommended in this section. Additional cautionary statements, i.e., Note to Physician, for first aid procedures, when necessary, will also appear here.
This section includes information regarding the stability of the material and any special storage or use considerations.
Spill, Leak and Disposal Procedures
This section outlines general procedures, precautions and methods for cleanup of spills. Appropriate waste disposal methods are provided for safety.
Personal Protection Information
This section includes general information about appropriate personal protective equipment for handling this material. Many times, this section of the SDS is written for large scale use of the material. Appropriate personal protection may be determined by considering the amount of the material being used and the actual manipulations to be performed.