Volume/Peak Rate Control by Bio-Infiltration

Volume/peak rate reduction by bio-infiltration introduces ecological mechanisms to infiltration SCMs. The introduction of these mechanisms improves water quality and reduces volume and peak flow. The amount of recharge is dependent on the type of SCM.

Bioinfiltration

Hydrology Sampling 

In a residential, suburban, urban and ultra-urban SCM, minimal equipment is needed to reach compliance. Storms should be monitored on a seasonal basis to determine the effectiveness of reducing the volume and peak discharge. Data can be compared to precipitation data from a nearby raingage using NOAA-ATLAS 14 (National Weather Service 2007). Storms should be monitored for:

  • Water Elevation

  • Infiltration Rate

Water elevation calculations can help in determining the infiltration rate. Infiltration rate is important in helping determine the SCM capacity to reduce the volume downstream and recharge the water table.

Quality Sampling & Quality Parameters 

Quality monitoring is not required for Volume/Peak Reduction by Bio-Infiltration SCMs at this monitoring level.

Ecology

Ecology monitoring is not required for Volume/Peak Reduction by Bio-Infiltration SCMs at this monitoring level.

Hydrology Sampling 

Hydrologic monitoring is important at a commercial site because of the potential spills that may increase and contaminate flow through the SCM. Therefore hydrology should be monitored on a monthly basis for:

  • Water Elevation

  • Infiltration Rate

  • Overflow

Water elevation calculations can help in determining the infiltration rate. Infiltration rate is important in helping determine the SCM capacity to reduce the volume downstream and recharge the water table. Bio-Infiltration SCMs attempt to eliminate overflow, but knowing this value shows the ability of the SCM to reduce peak flow when the SCMs capacity is breached.

Quality Sampling & Quality Parameters

Quality is important on industrial and commercial sites because of the potential for contaminant spills. Samples should be collected on a seasonal basis and tested for site specific chemical contamination or at the very least:

  • Physical Properties

Physical properties are important because they can indicate the potential for other pollutants and whether these pollutants are being eliminated between entry and exit, especially TDS because contaminants stick to solids. 

Ecology

Ecology monitoring is not required for Volume/Peak Reduction by Bio-Infiltration SCMs at this monitoring level.

Hydrology Sampling

At research and educational facilities, the manpower and utilities are available to monitor all hydrological aspects. Therefore data should be recorded on a storm by storm basis for:

  • Total Precipitation

  • Water Elevation

  • Soil Moisture Content

  • Infiltration Rate

  • Storage Volume

  • Overflow

Water elevation calculations can help in determining the infiltration rate. Infiltration rate is important in helping determine the SCM capacity to reduce the volume downstream and recharge the water table. Bio-Infiltration SCMs look to eliminate overflow, but knowing this value shows the ability of the SCM to reduce peak flow when the SCMs capacity is breached. Additional precipitation readings can help determine the amount of water being introduced to the site while soil moisture content helps determine the storage volume. Knowing the storage volume, can give a better understanding of the capacity the SCM to retain water. 

Quality Sampling & Quality Parameters

At research and educational facilities, the manpower and utilities are available to monitor all quality parameters. Therefore data should be recorded on a monthly basis for:

  • Physical Properties

  • Nutrients/Ionic Species

  • Total Recoverable Metals

Physical properties are important because they can indicate whether other pollutants potentially contaminate the water source and whether they are being eliminated between entry and exit, especially TDS. Nutrients and ionic species should be reviewed because of their effects on eutrophication. Increased levels of nutrients and metals lead to detrimental effects on aquatic life. 

Ecology

At research and educational facilities, the manpower and utilities are available to monitor all ecology parameters. Therefore data should be recorded on a storm by storm basis for:

  • Diversity/Coverage

  • Nutrient Uptake

  • Invertebrates

  • Vertebrates

A review of diversity and coverage can help determine which plants thrive better in the environment. Additional plants can be introduced to increase evapotranspiration. Nutrient uptake will help determine plants ability to absorb excess nutrients and which plants are more conducive to nutrient uptake. Invertebrate studies can determine if the toxin levels are increasing or decreasing based on indicator species results. Vertebrate studies should be completed because of the possible effects of animals of eating the vegetation and the potential for tampering with equipment.

Design

Subsurface Infiltration Bed 

Rain Garden/Bio-Retention 

Vegetated Swale