Our Augustinian Tradition

In the Augustinian tradition of theological inquiry, faculty members and students ponder a theology that seeks to be credible in cultural contexts. For us at Villanova, theology never is an "end-product" but a reality that emerges in interaction with contemporary culture, ready to be transformed again, and to transform, as time progresses. Analogous to Augustine "doing" theology, the distinctive element of theology at Villanova is Augustinian reasoning or, engaging theology from within, and contextualizing it meaningfully within, contemporary culture.

The following pages introduce you to the distinct features of "doing" theology in the Villanova way, in the Augustinian tradition of inquiry.


Studying theology within the Augustinian tradition is a crucial component of doing theology at VU. The Augustinian Tradition draws upon the legacy of St. Augustine’s passionate pursuit of truth, [1] an intentional endeavor [2] that summons the union of mind and heart, [3] correlates faith with reason, [4] builds unity in the midst of diversity, [5] and proceeds in the conviction that all authentic human wisdom is ultimately in harmony with divine wisdom. [6]In fidelity to St. Augustine’s theological reasoning in interaction with the religious, cultural, and intellectual traditions of his time, Christian theology in the Augustinian Tradition is a living, enduring way of understanding that continues to be refined, developed, and extended as it engages the contemporary world.

In other words, enriched by the tradition of St. Augustine, whose theology powerfully related faith and culture, theology is the study of Christianity as lived experience, and Theological Studies within the Augustinian Tradition aims to relate faith and culture for our time as Augustine did for his. Theology within the Augustinian Tradition thus seeks wisdom and truth [7]

  • in light of Christian religious, cultural, and intellectual traditions;
  • in unity with Philosophy, Liberal Studies, and the Sciences; [8]
  • in the service of the Church; [9]

probing rigorously, with its own canons of inquiry and verification, broader questions of relevance to Christian belief and practice, the unity and prophetic mission of the body of Christ, life as a whole, and the discovery of God. [10]

As Augustine put it, theological knowing is "understanding what we believe," that is, as a critical, systematic reflection on the life of faith. [11]However, in the Augustinian tradition, it is both speculative and practical and distinctive in its emphasis on the union of mind and heart. [12]

Commentary

[1] Augustine’s experience of what it means to be human entails awareness of self as "a divine project yet to be completed" (Daly, Theology). As such, the self is freedom, the freedom to create oneself over a lifetime. Time becomes the "fuel" of freedom, given by the Spirit, the co-doer of the self, always in relationship with others.

[2] "He [Augustine] is above all a theologian of will and desire" (Daly). "Every quest for knowledge is willed orientation of the mind towards the desired object" (O’Daly). If the Greeks discovered the mind, the exploration of the will (the "conative" drive) demanded different soil, the soil of Jerusalem. The will is the locus of freedom—it is the seat of praxis, of that human "doing" that constructs personhood over a lifetime. Augustine distinguished "free will" (liberum arbitrium) from freedom (libertas)—the latter is the result of grace (II Cor. 3:17). Grace is the liberating empowerment of the will, overcoming the heart, turned in on itself. With his rhetorical question, "What are we but wills?" Augustine mediated to the West the prophetic discovery of personhood as "the responsible self" (Scanlon).

[3] For Augustine, the workings of the mind are organized according to memory, understanding, and will. "Each human person has these potentialities ('memory, intelligence and love’) making up a trinity within the human being, within the single person" (De Arriba). The heart, the perennial symbol of restless desire, is on fire with a divinely enkindled love. It burns with the unquenchable desire to know, which ultimately only the divine can satisfy. There is a reciprocity between love and knowledge: love depends upon understanding, but also enables all knowing. See also Section IV, Notes 7, 8, 9.

[4] "So what this person says is partly true—’Let me understand, in order to believe’; and I on my side, when I say, just as the prophet says, 'On the contrary, believe, in order to understand,’ am speaking the truth. Let’s come to an agreement, then. So: understand, in order to believe; believe, in order to understand. I’ll put it in a nutshell, how we can accept both without argument: Understand, in order to believe, my word; believe, in order to understand, the word of God" (Sermon 43, 9).

[5] "Possess wholehearted love, be passionate for truth, desire unity, if you wish to live in the Holy Spirit to reach eternal life" (Sermon 267, 4). "Both in analyzing and in synthesizing it is a unity that I seek, a unity that I love. But when I analyze, I seek a homogenous unit; when I synthesize, I look for an integral unit" (On Order, II, 18, 48). For Augustine, unity (unitas) connects the elements of the mind (memory, understanding, and will) and people with others (solidarity); it emanates from competing ideas and comes "from wholeheartedness (charity/caritas) in our service to others" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots). Above all, it means conversing in unity amid division, that is, "[w]hat one can do with the elements of the mind to unify understanding as well as uniting one’s own learning with the learning of others who see the world very differently" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots).

[6] The "harmony of wills" motif is adapted from the College’s Mission Statement.

[7] Augustine placed wisdom (sapientia) higher than knowledge (scientia): "the wisdom of truth" and the "truth of wisdom" are the goals of all theological knowing. Turning to the scriptures, he gave both "wisdom" and "truth" a strong Christological focus: Christ, the Wisdom of God (e.g., 1 Cor. 1:24) and the Truth (John 14:6). The journey toward wisdom and truth involves the transformation of mind and heart, which transformation unites truth and love in wisdom, leading toward the unity (perceived identity) of self and others (neighbors, world, God).

[8] For Augustine, philosophy and theology were virtually identical, largely due to his sense of the public, universal character of the Christian Message. Most often, when he used the term "philosophy," he referred less to a particular subject of study than to an aspiration to unity that permeates all liberal study. He understood philosophy in its etymological sense as "a love of and desire for wisdom," which receives its ultimate satisfaction only in God. When he spoke of philosophy in a more specialized way, he meant a higher discipline which enabled learners to integrate what they had discovered in the liberal arts and other learning experiences into a concentrated exploration of ultimate reality. Paying attention to "good content," Augustine valued liberal education as "aids in our search for truth" (McCloskey, Considerations). "Study of the liberal arts, when moderate and within bounds, makes students more alert, more persevering and better equipped to embrace truth. As a result, they desire truth more enthusiastically, pursue it more firmly and in the end rest in it more satisfyingly" (On Order, I, 8, 24). Still, Augustine cautions against a naïve understanding of the usefulness of liberal education. It needed "to be critiqued to ensure that it [was] aiding in the liberating search for truth and not enslaving students in a privileged form of training. Augustine’s caution thus comes from the help liberal education gave him as well as the vulnerability he experienced when his liberal education supported his straying from the search for truth" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots).

[9] For Augustine, the truth, which the Church is called to proclaim, is a public truth. It is the truth for which every human heart is restless. The Church’s mission is to proclaim and explore it endlessly in conversation with the human family as a whole, for "nothing genuinely human fails to raise an echo in [the] hearts" of the followers of Christ (Gaudium et Spes, 1). In his writings, Augustine often appeals to the "weighty authority of all peoples" as supporting and enhancing the authorities of sacred Scripture and the Church.

[10] For Augustine ("the disciple of the love of God"), love of God is "not a doctrine but a life, not an abstract analysis but a journey, not a theory but an experience ... possessed only by those who live it, and it is uniquely theirs as their own being" (Pegis, Mind). His emphasis on the human will and decision, particularly the decision to love, as the proper fulfillments of all knowing has mediated to the West the biblical understanding of the human being as person who recognizes the unitive quality of his or her relationships with God, fellow human beings, and the world.

[11] On Free Choice of the Will, bk. 1, §4, trans. Thomas Williams [Indianapolis: Hackett, 1993], 7. Anselm of Canterbury later reformulates, "faith seeking understanding" (fides quaerens intellectum).

[12] Or knowledge and love, theory and practice. See also Section IV, Notes 7, 8, 9.

"Faith engaging culture" meets the Augustinian vision. Theology within the Augustinian tradition informs those seeking to fulfill the human vocation to be co-creators [1] with the Origin of Divine Wisdom. It understands theology to be part of culture [2] and energetically [3] accepts the challenge to render faith [4] intelligible and meaningful in our contemporary cultural contexts, [5] shaped by the latest advances in modern science, natural history, and critical theory. [6]

Commentary

[1] "Co-creatorship" is a concept from the Department’s Mission Statement. "Grounded in this creative activity is the [person’s] collaboration in the creating work of God: converting the Creator’s 'virtual creation’ into 'real creation’, which means into the illumination and cultural form of the [person]" (Del Rio). This, along with the concept of self as a yet-to-be-completed project, attends to the concern for imparting a sense of "pushing into the future." The world we live in is the world we have created. It is always ambiguous—raising the question of meaning and destiny. History is a synonym for humanity. Our ultimate destiny is a divine promise, but in the meantime we are totally responsible. God acts in and through us, as Aquinas taught. As co-creators, we supply all the specifics. Eternity is somehow the fruit of history—and history is what we do. We who make history are also made by the history that has preceded us with all the "social sins" we inherit. Social Sin can be overcome only by Social Grace, which is the Spirit’s empowerment to overcome the social sins of dehumanizing poverty, racism, sexism, etc. Augustine always presented the grace of the Holy Spirit as empowerment.

[2] Christian theology is part of culture, a form of culture-specific activity, "something that takes place within a culture" (Tanner, 63-64) and "something that human beings produce" (63). "Like all human activities, it is historically and socially conditioned; it cannot be understood in isolation from the rest of human sociocultural practices. In short, to say that theology is part of culture is just to say in a contemporary idiom that it is a human activity" (63).

[3] The Department of Humanities’ Statement of Purpose makes note of a "particular urgency in the present age" regarding the question of meaning.

[4] An Augustinian approach to the encounter of faith and culture recognizes that faith is an analogical term—neither Jews nor Muslims mean exactly the same thing by it as Christians do—and then gives consideration to the specificities of "Christian faith engaging culture" and its particular symbolic expressions. "[T]here is no reason to think that theology’s being set in a Christian cultural context rules out theological claims that are universal in scope … Theologians can proclaim truths with profound ramifications for the whole of human existence; they do so from within a Christian cultural context simply means that the claims they make are shaped by that context and are put forward from a Christian point of view" (Tanner, 69).

[5] Studying the intersection between faith and culture means interpreting faith in cultural contexts, or studying the "inculturation of faith," which is "a question of bringing culture to the faith. The effort … is to bring about the synthesis between faith and life from the synthesis between faith and culture" (Del Rio). Synthesis affects faith and culture in peculiar ways. Augustine "did not perceive our individual learning as radically changing the world. Rather, he saw it as changing how we view or understand the world together with others" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots).

[6] "Augustine’s thinking responds globally to an overall vision, a 'cosmo-vision’ of the world, humans and God" (Del Rio). His De doctrina christianaengages the great intellectual traditions of his era as "helps" to engaging the biblical text—"Augustine’s concern was for finding all the tools available for a truly liberating education." His goal was "to find a unity in what we know amid division emanating from competing ideas and explanations" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots). Anything that is true, beautiful, and good points to God who is Truth, Beauty, Goodness. Obviously, Augustine did not have an understanding of "culture" as reflected in the contemporary social sciences—but no ancient did. However, for Augustine, "culture" was not contrary to the Christian faith; it proved to be an "opportunity to purify the concept of God, … an opportunity for faith" (Seco). A case can be made for building a bridge between his ancient understanding and contemporary approaches by highlighting the pursuit of the "true, beautiful, and good." In this sense, the relationship between faith and culture is hermeneutical.

From the Augustinian traditio arises a distinct teaching/learning paradigm. In the Augustinian tradition, learning is understood as nurturing a way of knowing (mind) that is infused with care and love (heart). The way of knowing [1] within the Augustinian tradition is consonant with biblical (and, therefore, incarnational) imaging of personal involvement [2]and mutuality reflecting the quality of truth [3] that draws us into community: [4] it is holistic [5] and humanistic; [6] unites heart and mind,[7] love and knowledge, [8] practice and theory; [9] authenticates inner- and inter-personal experiences;  [10] responds to human restlessness; [11]fosters moral reasoning;[12] invites cultivating one’s self; [13] develops the desire to search out the unknown; [14] seeks unity [15] in humility;[16] and is a transforming experience. [17]


In summary: the way of knowing within the Augustinian tradition is a journey seeking truth (veritas) and discovering understanding; a dialogue with learners different from ourselves (unitas) leading to understanding; and a transformational wholeheartedness (caritas) opening the doors of understanding. [18]

Commentary

[1] "The objective of education is wisdom, contrary not to ignorance, but to foolishness (cf. Beata 28)" (Fincias). "Regarding the originality of his pedagogical thinking, it may be said that St. Augustine neither claimed to be original, nor was he. In fact, he embraced, Christianized and implemented the pedagogical knowledge he had inherited from the earlier Greek-Roman culture, above all the Greek 'paideia’ and, within it, the 'mayeutica’ of Socrates in more concrete terms" (Del Rio). Augustine did not develop a "detailed methodology for teaching and learning. Rather, he provided "directions, such as: 1) Learning through Transforming Experiences, 2) Possessing Wholehearted Love for Learning [caritas], 3) Being Passionate for Learning Truth [veritas], and 4) Learning to Desire Unity [unitas]" (McCloskey, Pedagogy).

[2] In the process, the learner cultivates (1) desire for authenticity, (2) capacity for discernment, and (3) sense of transcendence (Keller, Formation). "When we cultivate these learning dispositions in dialogue with the Inner Teacher, we have begun to apply Augustine’s experience to our own" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots). For the concept of Inner Teacher, see Notes 5, 10.

[3] Seeing truth in the Augustinian tradition is neither solely subjective nor objective: "truth is neither 'out there’ nor 'in here,’ but both. Truth is between us, in relationship … Truth is found as we are obedient to a pluralistic reality, as we engage in that patient process of dialogue, consensus seeking, and personal transformation in which all parties subject themselves to the bonds of communal truth. Such a way of knowing is more likely to bridge our gaps and divisions than drive us farther apart. Such a way of knowing can help heal us and our broken world" (Palmer).

[4] "The truth is neither mine nor yours, so that it can be yours and mine" (Commentary on the Psalms, 103, 2, 11). For Augustine, all knowledge is personal, that is, it involves the personal contribution of the knower ("Listen to the voice of truth in reflection and in silence so that you are able to understand it;" Sermon 52, 19, 22). It is passionate or "engaged" knowledge, energized by the heart or the desire to know. As personal, it is ideally communal. In other words, Augustine’s educational maxim is simulquaeramus—let us search together: simul (together) means learning is a public enterprise, an inquiry "with" others (dialogue); quaeramus(searching) means zetetic (Pierre Hadot) or "dynamic searching" that keeps learning demanding, open, and unfinished— fundamentally a lifelong process, a "restless journey" (McCloskey, Pedagogy). Learning "aims at creating a life changing agenda. It is not about short run training. It is … for the long run … It works as a chain of learning and reasoning" (McCloskey, Considerations). The goal of learning "is clearly an unfinished project … In this sense education never finishes, and makes the world a great classroom in which all human beings are partners on the way together" (Morahan). "Search in ways to make discoveries, and discover in ways to keep on searching" (Augustine). "Let us therefore search as people who are going to find, and find as people who are going to go on searching" (The Trinity 9, 1, 1). "Always add something more. Keep on walking. Always forge ahead" (Sermon 169, 18).

[5] Learning in the Augustinian tradition involves all dimensions of the person. Augustine recognizes that persons are organic wholes: learning happens in, through, and with the intellect, the heart, the body in, through, and with every aspect that makes each person uniquely individual. Learning is the dynamic that integrates every person’s inner–outer reality. "The outer [person] grows and develops by the acquisition, from outside to inside, of more and more knowledge and skills. Whereas the inner [person] develops and grows by self-expansion from inside to outside, dynamising what is potentially already, and the light of the 'inner teacher’ which [every person] carries inside" (Fincias).

[6] Augustine’s way of learning reflects his theological reasoning. He "pursues anthropology theologically [an anthropology that reflects upon the Grace-full relationship between God and humans] and theology humanistically" (Fincias). Learning "therefore is human above all: human in the way it [functions], humanistic because of the implications it entails, humanizing because the two disciples [inner teacher and learner] involved become more of a man/woman, more of a [person]" (De Arriba).

[7] "Contrary to other philosophies and pedagogies, which are exclusive works of the mind – opus mentis – … mind-and-heart are so strongly bonded in the quest for truth in the Augustinian metaphysics of knowledge that stemming only from their embrace – amplexus veritas (Lib. Arb. II. 13,35) – is the hope of attaining the 'delicious knowledge’ pursued" (Del Rio). For Augustine, "the speculative and abstract knowledge of Aristotelian philosophy does not suffice, and only the affective knowledge of the truth is perfect knowledge" (Del Rio).

[8] "The love of knowledge and truth should invite us to continue learning. The love of others should compel us to teach" (Answers to the Eight Questions of Dulcitius, 3). "If love finds a place within you, the fullness of knowledge will follow (Commentary on the Psalms, 80, 2). "Love itself is knowledge: the more one loves the more one knows" (St. Gregory). – Reminder: loving is an act of the will; see also Note 9. – Learning in the Augustinian tradition "consists in learning to love and learning to think, which is the path to true freedom." Experiencing freedom means "acting on the basis of interiority, from the truth and love residing in the interiority" (Seco; for the concept of interiority, see Note 10). Augustine’s "equation between the heart and the intelligence is 'intelligent love’" (Seco). In other words, Augustine can tell a person to "love and do what you will" (Homily on 1 John 2,8) because, for him, true love (agape) does not misuse knowledge (Tack).

[9] Because, as Blaise Pascal puts it, "the heart has its reasons that reason does not know," learners engage their minds and deepen their lives by integrating the speculative (mind) and practical (heart) in their studies. "Knowing the right thing was not enough[. Augustine] also had to develop the will to act rightly. Such actions show possession of a wholehearted love for what one learns" (McCloskey, Pedagogy). Learning in the Augustinian tradition "strives to arrive at action through reflection on experience taking into account accumulated wisdom" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots). In light of Augustine’s emphasis on the will, "authentic Augustinian pedagogy demands that disposition and learning are put into action through practice. This practice (praxis) reflects Augustine’s own arrival at effective learning" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots).

[10] Learning is the dynamic relationship between the student and inner and outer teachers (De Magistro). The outer teacher facilitates the dialogue between the student and truth. However, "[t]he true teacher is the Interior Teacher, the God who is within" (Morahan). "How much wealth is stored within each one of us! But what use is this wealth to us, if we do not investigate it?" (Commentary on the Psalms, 77, 8). "We have but one Teacher and, under him, we are all fellow students. We are not teachers because we speak in front of a class. The true Teacher speaks from within." (Sermon 134, 1, 1). The outer teacher "open[s] up the Truth to the student," "open[s] up the student to the Truth," and also opens up the Truth for him- or herself, which "makes the teacher a fellow student" (Morahan). Although persons "need illumination (enlightenment from the Inner Teacher), human reasoning plays an essential role in the search for truth" (McCloskey, Pedagogy).

[11] "You have made us for yourself and our heart is restless until it rests in you" (Confessions, I, 1,1). Human restlessness leads to "knowledge about our external world to the more deeply spiritual and religious knowledge. For Augustine, everything is now best sought in the light of faith and with the help of the Scriptures" (Morahan). He "knew keenly the difference between a journey toward meaning and understanding and a purposeless wandering. While everyone’s learning journey is life-long, he saw that we need to be making steady progress rather than meandering. … For Augustine, a meaningful restless journey is a pilgrimage, a sacred action" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots).

[12] In the Augustinian tradition, learning has "a 'mystique,’ a spirituality, a profound motivation stimulating values" (Fincias). Learning is initiation into the mystery of God that nurtures personal and communal involvement with Christ in the Spirit. Augustine’s "turn to interiority" led him to discover "the divine presence within him, the immanence of the transcendent God. The 'within’ of Augustine was primarily the discovery of himself as will (or person) in the presence of the divine Will (or the God of the Bible)." (Scanlon; see also Section II, Note 2) In the Augustinian tradition, "interiority is an essential part of the new spiritual currents of post-modern sensitivity: it is transcendent otherness." It is not "selfhood," but the "imago Dei" that "each person bears as a seed" so that from it people may "ascend to the knowledge of and encounter with the personal God of Jesus Christ" (Del Rio). Values provide the ambiance as well as the object of this involvement with Christ. They include convictions mediated by the Catholic Christian tradition, in particular, the concern for a more just, sustainable and peaceful world, "a better world, a 'new city’ still to be discovered and built" (De Arriba).

[13] "Augustinian education is self-education, and invitation to work on the arduous cultivation of one self (Conf. X, 16,25) and to unravel the depth and mystery of one’s own existence (Conf. X, 8, 15)" (Seco).

[14] Augustine’s willingness to confront problems and think through their implications comes from the biblical concept, "love casts our fear" (McCloskey, Considerations).

[15] "Augustine’s own learning taught him how to build a structure of cohesive interdependence (unity) among the elements and methods of knowledge [freedom, community, interdependence, love of God through love of neighbor, humility, solidarity, etc.]. As he tells us, 'Reason is the faculty to analyze and synthesize the things that ought to be learned. … Both in analyzing and in synthesizing it is a unity that I seek, a unity that I love. But when I analyze, I seek a homogeneous unity; when I synthesize, I look for an integral unity.’ This understanding encourages a pedagogy of 'multiple intelligences’ in which good reason and good thinking occur in varieties of form and through different frameworks of logic and reasoning" (McCloskey, Considerations; see also Note 5 above).

[16] "The first step in the search for truth is humility. The second, humility. The third, humility. And the last one, humility" (Letter 118, 3, 22). For Augustine, "community was a school for dialoguing with the Inner Teacher, meeting Whole Christ (Totus Christus), learning the humility necessary for true learning and learning that teaching is service not status" (McCloskey, Pedagogy).

[17] Augustine’s learning experiences are transformational, "often termed conversions (philosophical, intellectual, moral, religious). Transformation came through dialogue with the Inner Teacher" (McCloskey, Pedagogy). For him, "transformation only becomes 'real’ learning when learners can integrate learning within themselves. From such a perspective, all education is a form of self-education" (McCloskey, Cracked Pots).

[18] McCloskey, Cracked Pots.

The ideas presented here were adapted and augmented by our Graduate Committee from observations by members of the University community and other sources.

Members of the Department and the University community

Prof. Paul Danove; Prof. Francis Caponi, OSA; Prof. Walter Conn; Prof. Daniel Doyle, OSA; Prof. Edmund J. Dobbin, OSA (Excerpts from the 1988 Inaugural Presidential Address); Prof. Edward Enright, OSA; Dr. Joseph L. Farrell, OSA; Prof. Anthony Godzieba; Prof. Kevin Hughes; Prof. Joseph Loya, OSA; Prof. Thomas Martin, OSA; Prof. Bernard Prusak; Prof. Michael Scanlon, OSA; Prof. Peter Spitaler; Prof. Suzanne Toton; Prof. William Werpehowski.

Agustin Alcalde de Arriba, "Augustinian Methodology," in Basic Elements of Augustinian Pedagogy, ed. Eusebio B. Berdon (Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, Curia Gernaliza Agostiniana: Rome, 2006) 89-113. Gabriel Daly, "St. Augustine and Modern Theology," in Augustinian Spirituality and the Charism of the Augustinians, ed. John E. Rotelle (Villanova: Augustinian Press, 1995).

Isaias Diez Del Rio, "Augustinian Pedagogy: Philosophical and Anthropological Premises," in Basic Elements of Augustinian Pedagogy, ed. Eusebio B. Berdon (Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, Curia Gernaliza Agostiniana: Rome, 2006) 43-62.

Francisco Galende Fincias, "The Augustinian Educational Model," in Basic Elements of Augustinian Pedagogy, ed. Eusebio B. Berdon (Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, Curia Gernaliza Agostiniana: Rome, 2006) 33-62.

M.A. Keller, "Human Formation and Augustinian Anthropology," in Elements of an Augustinian Formation (Rome: Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, 2001) 208. Michael Morahan (ed.), Education: An Augustinian Approach (Coorparoo, Australia: 2001) Chapter 3.

Anton C. Pegis, "The Mind of Saint Augustine," Medieval Studies 6 (1944) 8. Santiago M. Insunza Seco, "The Identity of an Au-gustinian School," in Basic Elements of Augustinian Pedagogy, ed. Eusebio B. Berdon (Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, Curia Gernaliza Agostiniana: Rome, 2006) 137-169.

Gary N. McCloskey, "Considerations and Practices of Augustinian Pedagogy," in Basic Elements of Augustinian Pedagogy, ed. Eusebio B. Berdon (Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, Curia Gernaliza Agostiniana: Rome, 2006) 114-136.

Gary N. McCloskey, "Augustinian Pedagogy,"http://www.merrimack.edu/generator.php?id=2052.

Gary N McCloskey, "Cracked Pots and Brave Hearts: Augustine on Teaching and Learning, "http://www.merrimack.edu/gmccloskey/Merrimack%20College%20Catholic%20and%20Augustinian%20III.pdf(2004).

Gerard O’Daly, Augustine’s Philosophy of Mind (London: Gerald Duckworth, 1987) 211.

Parker J. Palmer, To Know as We are Known: A Spirituality of Education (San Francisco: Harper & Row) 1983.

Michael J. Scanlon, "Theology, Modern," in Allan D. Fitzgerald, John C. Cavadini (eds.), Augustine Through The Ages: An Encyclopedia (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999) 825-827.

Theodore E. Tack, "St Augustine, Student and Teacher," in Basic Elements of Augustinian Pedagogy, ed. Eusebio B. Berdon (Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, Curia Gernaliza Agostiniana: Rome, 2006) 15-32.

Kathryn Tanner, Theories of Culture. A New Agenda for Theology (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1997).